Background: RNA localization involves cis-motifs that are recognized by RNA-binding proteins (RBP), which then mediate localization to specific sub-cellular compartments. RNA localization is critical for many different cell functions, e.g., in neuronal dendrites, localization is a critical step for long-lasting synaptic potentiation. However, there is little consensus regarding which RNAs are localized and the role of alternative isoforms in localization. A comprehensive catalog of localized RNA can help dissect RBP/RNA interactions and localization motifs. Here, we utilize a single cell sub-cellular RNA sequencing approach to profile differentially localized RNAs from individual cells across multiple single cells to help identify a consistent set of localized RNA in mouse neurons. Results: Using independent RNA sequencing from soma and dendrites of the same neuron, we deeply profiled the sub-cellular transcriptomes to assess the extent and variability of dendritic RNA localization in individual hippocampal neurons, including an assessment of differential localization of alternative 3′UTR isoforms. We identified 2225 dendritic RNAs, including 298 cases of 3′UTR isoform-specific localization. We extensively analyzed the localized RNAs for potential localization motifs, finding that B1 and B2 SINE elements are up to 5.7 times more abundant in localized RNA 3′UTRs than non-localized, and also functionally characterized the localized RNAs using protein structure analysis. Conclusion: We integrate our list of localized RNAs with the literature to provide a comprehensive list of known dendritically localized RNAs as a resource. This catalog of transcripts, including differentially localized isoforms and computationally hypothesized localization motifs, will help investigators further dissect the genome-scale mechanism of RNA localization.
Middleton, S. A., Eberwine, J., & Kim, J. (2019). Comprehensive catalog of dendritically localized mRNA isoforms from sub-cellular sequencing of single mouse neurons. BMC Biology, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-019-0630-z