Imaging diagnostics

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Ultrasonography of the scrotal content has a firm place in present-day andrological diagnostics (Isidori and Lenzi 2008), allowing access to the scrotal organs without side-effects. Normal testis and epididymis display homogenous parenchymal echogenicity. Determination of testicular volume by palpation can be difficult in the case of hydroceles, thickened scrotal skin, epididymal fibrosis and particularly, in the case of cryptorchidism. Here, ultrasonography allows objective determination of testicular volume. Using a rotation ellipsoid formula, precise and reproducible determination of testicular volume is possible, which is of importance for longitudinal therapeutic studies (e.g., treatment with gonadotropins in hypogonadotro-pic hypogonadal patients) (Fig. 6.1a) (Behre et al. 1989; Büchter et al. 1998). A hydrocele appears as an echo-free area around the testis (Fig. 6.1b). It can occur following surgery or result from testicular tumors, or from chronic and recurrent inflammations of the testis or epididymis. In varicocele, enlargement of the venous diameter of the pampiniform plexus can be registered as well as the increase in the diameter of individual veins during the Valsalva maneuver (Cina et al. 2006) (Fig. 6.2a). © 2010 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.




Behre, H. M., & Zitzmann, M. (2010). Imaging diagnostics. In Andrology: Male Reproductive Health and Dysfunction (pp. 101–107). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

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