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Background: Anchoring vignettes are brief texts describing a hypothetical character who illustrates a certain fixed level of a trait under evaluation. This research uses vignettes to elucidate factors associated with sleep disorders in adult Japanese before and after adjustment for reporting heterogeneity in self-reports. This study also evaluates the need for adjusting for reporting heterogeneity in the management of sleep and energy related problems in Japan. Methods: We investigated a dataset of 1002 respondents aged 18 years and over from the Japanese World Health Survey, which collected information through face-to-face interview from 2002 to 2003. The ordered probit model and the Compound Hierarchical Ordered Probit (CHOPIT) model, which incorporated anchoring vignettes, were employed to estimate and compare associations of sleep and energy with socio-demographic and life-style factors before and after adjustment for differences in response category cut-points for each individual. Results: The prevalence of self-reported problems with sleep and energy was 53 %. Without correction of cut-point shifts, age, sex, and the number of comorbidities were significantly associated with a greater severity of sleep-related problems. After correction, age, the number of comorbidities, and regular exercise were significantly associated with a greater severity of sleep-related problems; sex was no longer a significant factor. Compared to the ordered probit model, the CHOPIT model provided two changes with a subtle difference in the magnitude of regression coefficients after correction for reporting heterogeneity. Conclusion: Sleep disorders are common in the general adult population of Japan. Correction for reporting heterogeneity using anchoring vignettes is not a necessary tool for proper management of sleep and energy related problems among Japanese adults. Older age, gender differences in communicating sleep-related problems, the presence of multiple morbidities, and regular exercise should be the focus of policies and clinical practice to improve sleep and energy management in Japan.
Tareque, M. I., Ikeda, N., Koshio, A., & Hasegawa, T. (2016). Is adjustment for reporting heterogeneity necessary in sleep disorders? Results from the Japanese World Health Survey. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0733-9