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Background: Autodissemination of pyriproxyfen (PPF), i.e. co-opting adult female mosquitoes to transfer the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen (PPF) to their aquatic habitats has been demonstrated for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes. This approach, could potentially enable high coverage of aquatic mosquito habitats, including those hard to locate or reach via conventional larviciding. This study demonstrated impacts of autodissemination in crashing a stable and self-sustaining population of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions in Tanzania. Methods: Self-propagating populations of An. arabiensis were established inside large semi-field cages. Larvae fed on naturally occurring food in 20 aquatic habitats in two study chambers (9.6 × 9.6 m each), while emerging adults fed on tethered cattle. The mosquito population was monitored using emergence traps and human landing catches, each time returning captured adults into the chambers. Once the population was stable (after 23 filial generations), PPF dissemination devices (i.e. four clay pots each treated with 0.2-0.3 g PPF) were introduced into one of the chambers (treatment) and their impact monitored in parallel with untreated chamber (control). Results: Daily adult emergence was similar between control and treatment chambers, with average (± SE) of 14.22 ± 0.70 and 12.62 ± 0.74 mosquitoes/trap, respectively, before treatment. Three months post-treatment, mean number of adult An. arabiensis emerging from the habitats was 5.22 ± 0.42 in control and 0.14 ± 0.04 in treatment chambers. This was equivalent to > 97% suppression in treatment chamber without re-treatment of the clay pots. Similarly, the number of mosquitoes attempting to bite volunteers inside the treatment chamber decreased to zero, 6 months post-exposure (i.e. 100% suppression). In contrast, biting rates in control rose to 53.75 ± 3.07 per volunteer over the same period. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate effective suppression of stable populations of malaria vectors using a small number of simple autodissemination devices, from which adult mosquitoes propagated pyriproxyfen to contaminate aquatic habitats in the system. This is the first proof that autodissemination can amplify treatment coverage and deplete malaria vector populations. Field trials are necessary to validate these results, and assess impact of autodissemination as a complementary malaria intervention.
Lwetoijera, D., Kiware, S., Okumu, F., Devine, G. J., & Majambere, S. (2019). Autodissemination of pyriproxyfen suppresses stable populations of Anopheles arabiensis under semi-controlled settings. Malaria Journal, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-2803-1