Background: Postoperative recovery after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with postoperative anemia, allogeneic transfusion, and stress immune responses to surgery. Carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) reduces bleeding through several mechanisms. We assessed the effect of CSS combined with tranexamic acid (TXA) on postoperative anemia, blood transfusion, and inflammatory responses. Methods: This study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 200 patients undergoing unilateral primary TKA. Patients were divided into 4 groups: group A received TXA plus topical and intravenous CSS; group B received TXA plus topical CSS only; group C received TXA plus intravenous CSS only; group D received TXA only. Results: Total blood loss in groups A (609.92 ± 221.24 mL), B (753.16 ± 247.67 mL), and C (829.23 ± 297.45 mL) was lower than in group D (1158.26 ± 334.13 mL, P <.05). There was no difference in total blood loss between groups B and C. We also found that compared with group D, the postoperative swelling rate, biomarker level of inflammation, visual analog scale pain score, and range of motion at discharge in groups A, B, and C were significantly improved (P <.05). No thromboembolic complications occurred. There were no differences in transfusion rate, intraoperative blood loss, platelet count, or average length of stay among the 4 groups (P >.05). Conclusion: CSS combined with TXA was more effective than TXA alone in reducing perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response and did not increase the incidence of thromboembolism complications.
Luo, Y., Zhao, X., Releken, Y., Yang, Z., Pei, F. X., & Kang, P. (2020). Hemostatic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carbazochrome Sodium Sulfonate in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Arthroplasty, 35(1), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.07.045