Coastal and marine environments are characterized by a lack of evident physical barriers or geographic isolation, and it may be difficult to understand how divergence can arise and be sustained in marine environments. The identification of ‘soft’ barriers is a crucial step towards the understanding of gene flow in marine environments. The marine catfishes of the family Ariidae are a demersal group with restricted migratory behavior, no pelagic larval stages, and mechanisms of larval retention, representing a potentially useful model for the understanding of historical processes of allopatric speciation in the marine environment. In the present study, two lineages of the Coco sea catfish, Bagre bagre, were recognized from their complete segregation at both mitochondrial and morphological levels. One lineage is distributed between Venezuela and the northern coast of Brazil, including the semiarid northeast coast, while the second lineage is found on the eastern coast of Brazil, including the humid northeast coast. Based on distribution area, habitats preference, and genetic variability, inferences are made in relation to biogeography and demography of lineages in Atlantic coast of South America.
da Silva, W. C., Marceniuk, A. P., Sales, J. B. L., & Araripe, J. (2016). Early pleistocene lineages of bagre bagre (Linnaeus, 1766) (siluriformes: Ariidae), from the atlantic coast of south america, with insights into the demography and biogeography of the species. Neotropical Ichthyology, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20150184