Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (P91) weld joints operating at elevated temperatures are well known to be prone to premature failure due to cracking in the heat affected zone because of the gradients in microstructure, popularly referred to as Type IV cracking. A campaign was undertaken to study the creep crack growth behaviour of modified 9Cr-1Mo weld joints. Creep crack growth (CCG) tests were carried out on compact tension (CT) specimens machined from P91 weld joints prepared using multipass shielded manual metal arc welding procedure. Specimens with two notch locations have been employed, (i) within the weld metal, between the centreline and the fusion line and (ii) in the heat affected zone. Constant load CCG tests were carried out at different applied loads at 798 and 898 K. The C∗ - da/dt correlations (da/dt =A C∗m) were established for both notch locations. At 898 K, a higher A (0.064) and lower m (0.533) for the case with notch placed in the HAZ, compared to those for the case of notch in the weld (0.0399 and 0.75 respectively) were observed indicating the higher creep crack growth in HAZ, confirming type IV cracking. The difference increases at lower C∗ levels which correspond to long term behaviour. Heavy creep damage was observed in the HAZ region even for the sample with notch in the weld, whereas the weld metal regions showed relatively less damage. As the crack grew, a change in its course to follow the HAZ region was observed.
Venugopal, S., Sasikala, G., & Kumar, Y. (2014). Creep crack growth behavior of a P91 steel weld. In Procedia Engineering (Vol. 86, pp. 662–668). Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.11.067