The solar wind was originally envisioned using a simple dipolar corona/polar coronal hole sources picture, but modern observations and models, together with the recent unusual solar cycle minimum, have demonstrated the limitations of this picture. The solar surface fields in both polar and low-to-mid-latitude active region zones routinely produce coronal magnetic fields and related solar wind sources much more complex than a dipole. This makes low-to-mid latitude coronal holes and their associated streamer boundaries major contributors to what is observed in the ecliptic and affects the Earth. In this paper we use magnetogram-based coronal field models to describe the conditions that prevailed in the corona from the decline of cycle 23 into the rising phase of cycle 24. The results emphasize the need for adopting new views of what is 'typical' solar wind, even when the Sun is relatively inactive. © 2012.
Luhmann, J. G., Petrie, G., & Riley, P. (2013, May). Solar origins of solar wind properties during the cycle 23 solar minimum and rising phase of cycle 24. Journal of Advanced Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2012.08.008