Abstract Tin dioxide (SnO<inf>2</inf>) is an attractive material for anodes in energy storage devices, because it has four times the theoretical capacity of the prevalent anode material (graphite). The main obstacle hampers SnO<inf>2</inf> from practical application is the pulverization problem caused by drastic volume change (∼300%) during lithium-ion insertion or extraction, which would lead to the loss of electrical conductivity, unstable solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and consequently severe capacity fading in the cycling. Here, we anchored the SnO<inf>2</inf> nanocrystals into three dimensional graphene gel network to tackle this problem. As a result of the three dimensional (3-D) architecture, the huge volume change during cycling was tolerated by the large free space in this 3-D construction, resulting in a high capacity of 1090 mAh g<sup>-1</sup> even after 200 cycles. What's more, at a higher current density 5 A g<sup>-1</sup>, a reversible capacity of about 491 mAh g<sup>-1</sup> was achieved with this electrode.
Wan, Y., Sha, Y., Luo, S., Deng, W., Wang, X., Xue, G., & Zhou, D. (2015). Facile synthesis of tin dioxide-based high performance anodes for lithium ion batteries assisted by graphene gel. Journal of Power Sources, 295, 41–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.125