Bioethicists have failed to understand the pervasively paternalistic character of research ethics. Not only is the overall structure of research review and regulation paternalistic in some sense; even the way informed consent is sought may imply paternalism. Paternalism has limits, however. Getting clear on the paternalism of research ethics may mean some kinds of prohibited research should be reassessed.
Wertheimer, A. (2012). Facing up to paternalism in research ethics. In The Ethical Challenges of Human Research: Selected Essays. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199896202.003.0002