We report a novel far-infrared (FIR) thermal reduction process to effectively reduce graphene oxide films for supercapacitor electrode applications. The binder-free graphene oxide films used in this study were produced by electro-spray deposition of a graphene oxide colloidal solution onto stainless steel current collectors. The reduction of graphene oxide was performed using a commercial FIR convection oven that is ubiquitous in homes for cooking and heating food. The reduction process incorporated a simple, one-step FIR irradiation carried out in ambient air. Further, the FIR irradiation process was completed in ∼3 min, wherein neither special atmosphere nor high temperature was employed, resulting in an economic, efficient and simplified processing technique. The as-produced FIR graphene electrode gave a specific capacitance of ∼320 F/g at a current density of ∼0.2 A/g with less than 94% loss in specific capacitance over 10,000 charge/discharge cycles. This is one of the best specific capacitances reported for all-carbon electrodes without any additives. Even at ultrafast charge/discharge rates (current densities as high as ∼100 A/g), the FIR graphene electrode still delivered specific capacitances in excess of 90 F/g. The measured energy and power densities of the FIR supercapacitors were found to be ∼3-6 times higher than commercial (activated carbon) supercapacitor devices. This excellent electrochemical performance of the FIR graphene coupled with its ease of production (in air at low temperatures) using a commercial home-use FIR convection oven indicates the significant potential of this concept for large-scale commercial electrochemical supercapacitor applications. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xiang, F., Zhong, J., Gu, N., Mukherjee, R., Oh, I. K., Koratkar, N., & Yang, Z. (2014). Far-infrared reduced graphene oxide as high performance electrodes for supercapacitors. Carbon, 75, 201–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.03.053