After the end of a charging or discharging sequence, the battery voltage keeps evolving towards a finite value, during hours or even days, although no current is exchanged with the battery. This corresponds to the battery relaxation. In the context of electric vehicles (EV), a good measurement of the voltage at rest allows an accurate estimation of the battery state of charge (SoC). The characterization of the battery voltage at different levels of SoC after the full relaxation would be very time consuming. In this paper, a fast method to extrapolate long relaxation voltage is proposed. It needs only one complete measurement of relaxation at one given SoC and could give accurate voltage estimation at other states of charge from short and partial measurement. This generic method was validated on three different cells and could be easily extended to any type of battery.
Li, A., Pelissier, S., Venet, P., & Gyan, P. (2016). Fast characterization method for modeling battery relaxation voltage. Batteries, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries2020007