Fast form alpha-2-macroglobulin - A marker for protease activation in plasma exposed to artificial surfaces

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Abstract

Objectives Investigation of the blood compatibility requires a number of sensitive assays to quantify the activation of the blood protein cascades and cells induced by biomaterials. A global assay measuring the blood compatibility of biomaterials could be a valuable tool in such regard. In this study, we investigated whether an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), that specifically measures the electrophoretic “fast form” of α2-macroglobulin (F-α2M), could be a sensitive and global marker for activation of calcium dependent and in-dependent proteases in plasma exposed to biomaterials in vitro. Methods A F-α2M specific monoclonal antibody was generated and applied in an ELISA setup. Using the F-α2M ELISA, we investigated activation of calcium dependent and in-dependent proteases by polyvinylchloride (n = 10), polytetrafluoroethylene (n = 10) and silicone (n = 10) tubings as well as glass tubes (n = 10). Results We found that F-α2M is a sensitive marker for activation of both calcium dependent and in-dependent proteases. A significant difference between F-α2M concentrations in the control sample and plasma exposed to the artificial surfaces was found (p > 0.001). This was observed both in the presence and absence of calcium. Furthermore, the highest F-α2M concentration was in both cases found in plasma incubated with glass. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that F-α2M is a sensitive marker for detection of protease activation in plasma by artificial surfaces. Potentially, levels of F-α2M could be a global marker of the blood compatibility of biomaterials.

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Biltoft, D., Gram, J. B., Larsen, A., Münster, A. M. B., Sidelmann, J. J., Skjoedt, K., & Palarasah, Y. (2017). Fast form alpha-2-macroglobulin - A marker for protease activation in plasma exposed to artificial surfaces. Clinical Biochemistry, 50(18), 1203–1208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2017.09.002

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