Does visualisation during urethrocystoscopy provide pain relief? Results of an observational study

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Background: To measure the effects of real-time visualisation during urethrocystoscopy on pain in patients who underwent ambulatory urethrocystoscopy. Methods: An observational study was designed. From June 2012 to June 2013 patients who had ambulatory urethrocystoscopy participated in the study. In order to measure pain perception we used a numeric rating scale (NRS) 0 to 10. Additional data was collected including gender, reason for intervention, use of a rigid or a flexible instrument and whether the patient had had urethrocystoscopy before. Results: 185 patients were evaluated. 125 patients preferred to watch their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen, 60 patients did not. There was no statistically relevant difference in pain perception between those patients who watched their urethrocystoscopy on a real-time video screen and those who did not (p∈=∈0.063). However, men who were allowed to watch their flexible urethrocystoscopy experienced significantly less pain, than those who did not (p∈=∈0.007). No such effects could be measured for rigid urethrocystoscopy (p∈=∈0.317). Furthermore, women experienced significantly higher levels of pain during the urethrocystoscopy than men (p∈=∈0.032). Conclusions: Visualisation during urethrocystoscopy procedures in general does not significantly decrease pain in patients. Nevertheless, men who undergo flexible urethrocystoscopy should be offered to watch their procedure in real-time on a video screen. To make urethrocystoscopy less painful for both genders, especially for women, should be subject to further research.




Koenig, J., Sevinc, S., Frohme, C., Heers, H., Hofmann, R., & Hegele, A. (2015). Does visualisation during urethrocystoscopy provide pain relief? Results of an observational study. BMC Urology, 15(1).

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