Intestinal microbiota is now considered as a “new organ” which, over and above their genetic origin, de-orphans the pandemic development of metabolic diseases. The trillions of bacteria and their corresponding million genes which inhabit our gut provide a unique source of molecular hypotheses to explain the wide diversity of metabolic diseases and hence form a basis to reach the important objective of personalized medicine. The gut and more recently the tissue microbiome could be the source of: (1) new biomarkers predicting and classifying metabolic diseases to help the clinician to propose the best therapeutic strategy, and (2) new pharmacological and nutritional strategies to treat the cause rather than the consequence of diabetes and obesity. The field of immunometabolism should be extended to microbio-immunometabolism, thus reconciling the role of the environment, the genetic background, and individual diversity in relation to the onset and development of metabolic diseases.
Burcelin, R., Courtney, M., & Amar, J. (2015). Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Diseases: From Pathogenesis to Therapeutic Perspective. In Molecular and Integrative Toxicology (pp. 199–234). Springer Science+Business Media B.V. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-6539-2_11