Rap proteins are Ras-like small GTP-binding proteins that amongst others are involved in the control of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Several Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RapGEFs) function to activate Rap. These multi-domain proteins, which include C3G, Epacs, PDZ-GEFs, RapGRPs and DOCK4, are regulated by various different stimuli and may function at different levels in junction formation. Downstream of Rap, a number of effector proteins have been implicated in junctional control, most notably the adaptor proteins AF6 and KRIT/CCM1. In this review, we will highlight the latest findings on the Rap signaling network in the control of epithelial and endothelial cell-cell junctions. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pannekoek, W. J., Kooistra, M. R. H., Zwartkruis, F. J. T., & Bos, J. L. (2009, April). Cell-cell junction formation: The role of Rap1 and Rap1 guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2008.12.010