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Background: Acute suppurative thyroiditis through the congenital pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) often recurs if the fistula is not resected. Although endoscopic chemo-cauterization (ECC) to obliterate the orifice of the fistula is less invasive than open fistulectomy, it may require repeated treatments. We recently adopted an endoscopic diode laser-cauterization (ELC) system with the intention of improving treatment outcomes in PSF. Here, we describe ELC and compare the outcomes of these three modalities. Methods: We evaluated 83 patients with PSF who underwent treatment between 2007 and 2018 at Kuma Hospital, a tertiary thyroid treatment hospital. ECC and ELC were implemented in 2007 and 2015, respectively. Patients who were ineligible for the endoscopic procedures underwent open fistulectomy. Barium swallow studies and computed tomography scan under a trumpet maneuver were performed after treatment to evaluate obliteration or removal of the fistula. Results: In total, 70 of the 81 (86%) patients who underwent barium swallow studies after the first treatment achieved obliteration or removal of the fistula. The success rates for open fistulectomy, ECC, and ELC were 100% (9/9), 83% (49/59), and 100% (13/13), respectively. ECC and ELC had significantly shorter operative times and lower blood loss than open fistulectomy. Insufficient opening of the mouth was the major reason for converting endoscopic procedures to open fistulectomy. Conclusions: ELC may yield superior outcomes and is therefore the optimal treatment modality for PSF. However, it is still associated with certain limitations. Thus, treatment selection remains dependent on the shape and size of the PSF and the mouth opening of the individual patient.
Masuoka, H., Miyauchi, A., Sasaki, T., Sano, T., & Miya, A. (2021). Outcomes of endoscopic chemo- and laser-cauterizations and open fistulectomy for pyriform sinus fistula. Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, 50(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40463-021-00537-7