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Objectives To report epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of human rhinovirus (HRV) infections in comparison with other community acquired respiratory virus (CRV) infections in patients hospitalized for two consecutive years. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory data of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory syndrome in a tertiary care hospital from 2012 to 2013 were reviewed. Results HRV was the most common CRV observed (36%, 162/444) and was present in the majority of viral co-detections (69%, 88/128), mainly in association with human enterovirus (45%). Most HRV-infected patients were younger than 2 years (57%). Overall, patients infected with HRV had a lower frequency of severe acute respiratory infection than those infected with other CRVs (60% and 84%, respectively, p = 0.006), but had more comorbidities (40% and 27%, respectively; p = 0.043). However, in the adjusted analysis this association was not significant. The mortality rate within the HRV group was 3%. Detection of HRV was more prevalent during autumn and winter, with a moderately negative correlation between viral infection frequency and temperature (r = −0.636, p < 0.001) but no correlation with rainfall (r = −0.036, p = 0.866). Conclusion HRV is usually detected in hospitalized children with respiratory infections and is often present in viral co-detections. Comorbidities are closely associated with HRV infections. These infections show seasonal variation, with predominance during colder seasons.
Leotte, J., Trombetta, H., Faggion, H. Z., Almeida, B. M., Nogueira, M. B., Vidal, L. R., & Raboni, S. M. (2017). Impact and seasonality of human rhinovirus infection in hospitalized patients for two consecutive years. Jornal de Pediatria, 93(3), 294–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2016.07.004