This paper presents clinical results of the implementation of an automatic controller previously designed by the authors for the BIS level of patients subject to general anesthesia. Since the controller has a state feedback component, an observer is introduced in order to estimate state.
Nogueira, F. N., Mendonça, T., & Rocha, P. (2015). Automatic control of the depth of anesthesia-clinical results. In IFAC-PapersOnLine (Vol. 28, pp. 540–544). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2015.10.197