Postprandial glycemic responses to meals are inhibited by polyphenol-rich plant foods. Combinations of polyphenols may be particularly effective through complementary mechanisms. A randomized, controlled, double-blinded cross-over trial was conducted in healthy volunteers to test the hypothesis that apple and blackcurrant polyphenol-rich drinks would reduce postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Secondary outcomes included insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion. Twenty men (mean age 26 y, SD 8) and 5 postmenopausal women (mean age 57 y, SD 3) consumed a placebo drink (CON) and 2 polyphenol-rich drinks containing fruit extracts: either 1200 mg apple polyphenols (AE), or 600 mg apple polyphenols+600 mg blackcurrant anthocyanins (AE+BE), in random order with a starch and sucrose meal. Incremental areas under the curve (iAUC) for plasma glucose concentrations were lower following AE+BE over 0–30 and 0–120 min compared with CON; mean differences (95% CI) −32 mmol/L·min (−41, −22, P<.0005) and −52 mmol/L min (−94, −9, P<.05), respectively. AE significantly reduced iAUC 0–30 min (mean difference −26 mmol/L min, −35, −18, P<.0005) compared with CON, but the difference over 120 min was not significant. Postprandial insulin, C-peptide and GIP concentrations were significantly reduced relative to CON. A dose response inhibition of glucose transport was demonstrated in Caco-2 cells, including total and GLUT-mediated transport, and SGLT1-mediated glucose transport was strongly inhibited at all doses in Xenopus oocytes, following 10 min incubation with 0.125–4 mg apple polyphenols/ml. In conclusion, ingestion of apple and blackcurrant polyphenols decreased postprandial glycemia, which may be partly related to inhibition of intestinal glucose transport.
Castro-Acosta, M. L., Stone, S. G., Mok, J. E., Mhajan, R. K., Fu, C. I., Lenihan-Geels, G. N., … Hall, W. L. (2017). Apple and blackcurrant polyphenol-rich drinks decrease postprandial glucose, insulin and incretin response to a high-carbohydrate meal in healthy men and women. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 49, 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.07.013