Genital ulcer disease by virtue of disruption of the mucosal surfaces may enhance HIV acquisition. Genital ulcer disease treatment with resolution of the ulcers may therefore contribute in reducing the sexual acquisition of HIV. To determine the effects of treatment of genital ulcer disease on sexual acquisition of HIV. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, NLM Gateway, Web of Science, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of relevant publications for eligible studies published between 1980 and August 2011. Randomized controlled trials of any treatment intervention aimed at curing genital ulcer disease compared with an alternative treatment, placebo, or no treatment. We included only trials whose unit of randomization was the individual with confirmed genital ulcer. We independently selected studies and extracted data in duplicate; resolving discrepancies by discussion, consensus, and arbitration by third review author. We expressed study results as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were three randomized controlled trials that met our inclusion criteria recruited HIV-negative participants with chancroid (two trials with 143 participants) and primary syphilis (one trial with 30 participants). The syphilis study, carried out in the US between 1995 and 1997, randomized participants to receive a single 2.0 g oral dose of azithromycin (11 participants); two 2.0 g oral doses of azithromycin administered six to eight days apart (eight participants); or benzathine penicillin G administered as either 2.4 million units intramuscular injection once or twice seven days apart (11 participants). No participant in the trial seroconverted during 12 months of follow-up. The chancroid trials, conducted in Kenya by 1990, found no significant differences in HIV seroconversion rates during four to 12 weeks of follow-up between 400 and 200 mg single oral doses of fleroxacin (one trial, 45 participants; RR 3.00; 95% CI 0.29 to 30.69), or between 400 mg fleroxacin and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole plus 160 mg trimethoprim (one trial, 98 participants; RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.04 to 3.09).
Mutua, F. M., M’Imunya, J. M., & Wiysonge, C. S. (2012). Genital ulcer disease treatment for reducing sexual acquisition of HIV. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd007933.pub2