We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.
Wetterich, C. (2017). Fermions as generalized Ising models. Nuclear Physics B, 917, 241–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2017.02.012