A general field-circuit coupling mechanism for electromagnetic models is presented. The topological treatment of the circuit allows for a well-defined choice of coupling unknowns and equations, both for couplings of magnetic fields to magnetic circuits and couplings of magnetic fields to electric circuits. The properties of the resulting systems of equations are studied and appropriate iterative solution techniques are proposed. Three technical examples demonstrate the modelling flexibility provided by field-circuit coupling. © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.
De Gersem, H., Hameyer, K., & Weiland, T. (2004). Field-circuit coupled models in electromagnetic simulation. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 168(1–2), 125–133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cam.2003.05.008