Flammutoxin, a 31-kDa cardiotoxic and cytolytic protein from the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes, has been shown to assemble into a pore-forming annular oligomer with outer and inner diameters of 10 and 5 nm on the target cells [Tomita et al., Biochem. J. 333 (1998) 129-137]. Here we studied electrophysiological properties of flammutoxin channels using planar lipid bilayer technique, and found that flammutoxin formed two types of moderately cation-selective, voltage-gated channels with smaller and larger current amplitudes (1-4.5 pA and 20-30 pA, respectively, at 20 mV) in the lipid bilayers composed of phospholipid and cholesterol. The larger-conductance single channel showed the properties of a wide water-filled pore such as a linear relationship between channel conductance and salt concentration of the bathing solution. The functional diameter of the larger-conductance channel was estimated to be 4-5 nm by measuring the current conductance in the presence of polyethylene glycols of various sizes. In contrast, the smaller- conductance single channels showed a non-linear current to voltage curve and a saturating conductance to increasing salt concentration. These results suggest that the larger-conductance channel of flammutoxin corresponds to the hemolytic pore complex, while the smaller-conductance channel may reflect the intermediate state(s) of the assembling toxin. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
Tadjibaeva, G., Sabirov, R., & Tomita, T. (2000). Flammutoxin, a cytolysin from the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes, forms two different types of voltage-gated channels in lipid bilayer membranes. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, 1467(2), 431–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2736(00)00240-6