PURPOSE Genotyping studies like spoligotyping are valuable tools in understanding the genetic diversity and epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Though there are reports of spoligotyping of M. tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary specimens from different parts of India, spoligotyping of extra pulmonary tuberculosis isolates are very few. Puducherry has not yet recorded spoligopatterns of M. tuberculosis from either pulmonary or extra pulmonary (EPTB) specimens. The aim of this study is to analyze the spoligotype patterns of EPTB strains circulating in Puducherry and neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS During June 2011 to December 2013, 570 EPTB specimens were processed by culturing on to Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and automated Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube system (MGIT960). Identification of M. tuberculosis was carried out as per standard procedures, and MPT 64 antigen positivity in a commercial immunochromatography kit. Spoligotyping was carried out at National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis (ICMR), Chennai. RESULTS M. tuberculosis was isolated from 67 single EPTB specimens (11.8%) like pus/cold abscess (34), TB spine (10), pleural fluid (10), urine (5), tissue bit (2), lymph nodes (2), ascitic fluid (2), synovial fluid (1) and endometrial curetting (1). Among 67 isolates with 41 spoligopatterns, EAI lineage with 28 isolates (41.8%) predominated followed by 18 orphans (26.9%), 10 Beijing (14.9%) and 8 U (11.9%). BOVIS1_BCG (ST482), T1-T2 (ST78) and H3 (ST50) were represented by one strain each (1.5%). C onclusions: Spoligotyping plays a significant role in the epidemiology of tuberculosis. Three spoligotypes, T1-T2 (ST78), EAI6 (ST292) and U (ST1429) are reported for the first time in India.
Mohammadi Torbati, P. (2012). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; collapsing variant. Journal of Nephropathology, 1(2), 87–90. https://doi.org/10.5812/nephropathol.7515