© The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. The formation of a trivalent chromium conversion coating on AA2024-T351 aluminum alloy has been studied using electron microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy, ion beam analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The coating contained oxide, hydroxide, fluoride and sulfate species, and consisted of two main layers: a zirconium- and chromium-rich outer layer and a thinner, aluminum-rich, inner layer. XPS indicated that zirconium and chromium are mainly present as ZrO2, Cr(OH)3, Cr2(SO4)3and CrF3. In addition, a thin aluminum-rich layer, probably composed of hydrated alumina, occurred transiently at the coating surface. The coating above cathodic second phase particles was usually thicker than that above the matrix due to the locally increased alkalinity. In the early stages of treatment, the thickest coating formed above the S-phase particles. Localized corrosion and copper enrichment of the matrix occurred at the coating base. The localized corrosion is possibly related to the observed accumulation of fluoride ions at the inner layer and the enrichment of copper in the alloy. The thickness of the coating above the alloy matrix was significantly less than that of a coating formed on high purity aluminum.
Qi, J., Hashimoto, T., Walton, J., Zhou, X., Skeldon, P., & Thompson, G. E. (2015). Formation of a Trivalent Chromium Conversion Coating on AA2024-T351 Alloy. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 163(2), C25–C35. https://doi.org/10.1149/2.0771602jes