© 2016 Tacharoenmuang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The emergence and rapid spread of unusual DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant rotavirus strains have been recently reported in Asia, Australia, and Europe. During rotavirus surveillance in Thailand in 2013-2014, novel DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains having G8P genotypes (i.e., strains KKL-17, PCB-79, PCB-84, PCB-85, PCB-103, SKT- 107, SWL-12, NP-130, PCB-656, SKT-457, SSKT-269, and SSL-55) were identified in stool samples from hospitalized children with severe diarrhea. In this study, we determined and characterized the complete genomes of these 12 strains (seven strains, KKL-17, PCB- 79, PCB-84, PCB-85, PCB-103, SKT-107, and SWL-12, found in 2013 (2013 strains), and five, NP-130, PCB-656, SKT-457, SSKT-269, and SSL-55, in 2014 (2014 strains)). On full genomic analysis, all 12 strains showed a unique genotype constellation comprising a mixture of genogroup 1 and 2 genes: G8-P -I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. With the exception of the G genotype, the unique genotype constellation of the 12 strains (P-I2-R2-C2- M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2) was found to be shared with DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains. On phylogenetic analysis, six of the 11 genes of the 2013 strains (VP4, VP2, VP3, NSP1, NSP3, and NSP5) appeared to have originated from DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains, while the remaining four (VP7, VP6, VP1, and NSP2) and one (NSP4) gene appeared to be of bovine and human origin, respectively. Thus, the 2013 strains appeared to be reassortant strains as to DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant, bovine, bovine-like human, and/or human rotaviruses. On the other hand, five of the 11 genes of the 2014 strains (VP4, VP2, VP3, NSP1, and NSP3) appeared to have originated from DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains, while three (VP7, VP1, and NSP2) and one (NSP4) were assumed to be of bovine and human origin, respectively. Notably, the remaining two genes, VP6 and NSP5, of the 2014 strains appeared to have originated from locally circulating DS-1-like G2P human rotaviruses. Thus, the 2014 strains were assumed to be multiple reassortment strains as to DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant, bovine, bovinelike human, human, and/or locally circulating DS-1-like G2P human rotaviruses. Overall, the great genomic diversity among the DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains seemed to have been generated through additional reassortment events involving animal and human strains. Moreover, all the 11 genes of three of the 2014 strains, NP-130, PCB- 656, and SSL-55, were very closely related to those of Vietnamese DS-1-like G8P strains that emerged in 2014-2015, indicating the derivation of these DS-1-like G8P strains from a common ancestor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on full genomebased characterization of DS-1-like G8P strains that have emerged in Thailand. Our observations will add to our growing understanding of the evolutionary patterns of emerging DS-1-like intergenogroup reassortant strains.
Tacharoenmuang, R., Komoto, S., Guntapong, R., Ide, T., Sinchai, P., Upachai, S., … Taniguchi, K. (2016). Full Genome Characterization of Novel DS-1-Like G8P Rotavirus Strains that Have Emerged in Thailand: Reassortment of Bovine and Human Rotavirus Gene Segments in Emerging DS-1-Like Intergenogroup Reassortant Strains. PLoS ONE, 11(11). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165826