© 2017 Mao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. In this study, we present a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) framework that combines smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and nonlinear finite element (FE) method to investigate the coupled aortic and mitral valves structural response and the bulk intraventricular hemodynamics in a realistic left ventricle (LV) model during the entire cardiac cycle. The FSI model incorporates valve structures that consider native asymmetric leaflet geometries, anisotropic hyperelastic material models and human material properties. Comparison of FSI results with subject-specific echocardiography data demonstrates that the SPH-FE approach is able to quantitatively predict the opening and closing times of the valves, the mitral leaflet opening and closing angles, and the large-scale intraventricular flow phenomena with a reasonable agreement. Moreover, comparison of FSI results with a LV model without valves reveals substantial differences in the flow field. Peak systolic velocities obtained from the FSI model and the LV model without valves are 2.56 m/s and 1.16 m/s, respectively, compared to the Doppler echo data of 2.17 m/s. The proposed SPH-FE FSI framework represents a further step towards modeling patient-specific coupled LV-valve dynamics, and has the potential to improve our understanding of cardiovascular physiology and to support professionals in clinical decision-making.
Mao, W., Caballero, A., McKay, R., Primiano, C., & Sun, W. (2017). Fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction simulation of the aortic and mitral valves in a realistic 3D left ventricle model. PLoS ONE, 12(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184729