Background and aims: Female has been demonstrated to be at higher risk following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with male in unadjusted analyses. However, conflicting results were observed after adjustment of confounding factors. Particularly, more recent studies reported that gender differences have diminished possibly by evolution of PCI-related devices and evidence-based medical therapy. We aimed to examine gender differences in long-term clinical outcomes following PCI during time period of 25 years. Methods: This was a single center retrospective study in which consecutive patients who received the first PCI in our institution between January 1984 and December 2008 were analyzed. A composite of all-cause death and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at 5-year after the index PCI was compared between genders. The endpoint was also examined in plain-old balloon angioplasty (POBA)-bare metal stent (BMS)- and drug-eluting stent (DES)-eras separately. Results: A total of 3531 patients (female; 605, male; 2926) were analyzed. The female patients had higher risk profiles than the male in terms of age, comorbid diseases, a prevalence of ACS, while male patients had a higher percentage of smoking, lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and lower percentages of secondary prevention drugs. Gender difference was not observed in 5-year all-cause death and ACS in multivariable Cox regression analysis. After controlling variables, age, body mass index, hemoglobin value and LVEF were associated with the clinical outcomes in both genders. Conclusion: Gender difference was not observed in the long-term all-cause death and ACS in patients following PCI.
Naito, R., Miyauchi, K., Konishi, H., Tsuboi, S., Ogita, M., Dohi, T., … Daida, H. (2016). Gender difference in long-term clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention during 1984-2008. Atherosclerosis, 247, 105–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.10.088