© 2016 Manicardi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. We evaluated gender-differences in quality of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care. Starting from electronic medical records of 300 centers, 5 process indicators, 3 favorable and 6 unfavorable intermediate outcomes, 6 treatment intensity/appropriateness measures and an overall quality score were measured. The likelihood of women vs. men (reference class) to be monitored, to reach outcomes, or to be treated has been investigated through multilevel logistic regression analyses; results are expressed as Odd Ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). The inter-center variability in the achievement of the unfavorable outcomes was also investigated. Overall, 28,802 subjects were analyzed (45.5% women). Women and men had similar age (44.5±16.0 vs. 45.0±17.0 years) and diabetes duration (18.3-13.0 vs. 18.8-13.0 years). No between-gender differences were found in process indicators. As for intermediate outcomes, women showed 33% higher likelihood of having HbA1c ≥8.0% (OR =1.33; 95%CI: 1.25-1.43), 29% lower risk of blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg (OR =0.71; 95%CI: 0.65-0.77) and 27% lower risk of micro/macroalbuminuria (OR =0.73; 95%CI: 0.65-0.81) than men, while BMI, LDL-c and GFR did not significantly differ; treatment intensity/appropriateness was not systematically different between genders; overall quality score was similar in men and women. Consistently across centers a larger proportion of women than men had HbA1c ≥8.0%, while a smaller proportion had BP ≥140/90 mmHg. No gender-disparities were found in process measures and improvements are required in both genders. The systematic worse metabolic control in women and worse blood pressure in men suggest that pathophysiologic differences rather than the care provided might explain these differences.
Manicardi, V., Russo, G., Napoli, A., Torlone, E., Volsi, P. L., Giorda, C. B., … Rossi, M. C. (2016). Gender-disparitiesin adults with type 1 diabetes: More than a quality of care issue. A cross-sectional observational study from the AMD annals initiative. PLoS ONE, 11(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162960