The formal relationships between the scalar and tensorial virials and Eshelby tensors have been presently investigated. The key idea is to evaluate the Eshelby stress from discrete or atomistic simulations for a structured body, conceived as a numerical homogenization method to reconstitute the macroscopic continuum behavior in multiscale modelling approaches. Extending first the writing of the scalar virial to a material format, it is shown that the average of the elaborated scalar material virial is the trace of the (material) Eshelby stress. The spatial and material virials are further related to eachother in the framework of hyperelasticity, and a tensorial extension of the material virial is provided. Interpretation of those results from the microscopic point of view shows that Eshelby stress may be identified and calculated at the discrete level from the average of the virial tensor. Consideration of the material version of the virial theorem further leads to express Eshelby stress versus the average of the internal tensorial material virial and of the kinetic energy. The average scalar virial is further identified to the grand potential in a thermodynamic context. A definition of the material scalar virial for a second order continuum is lastly proposed, based on the identification of a second order Eshelby stress and in line with the second order Cauchy-Born rule. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ganghoffer, J. F. (2010). On the generalized virial theorem and Eshelby tensors. International Journal of Solids and Structures, 47(9), 1209–1220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2010.01.009