Urine samples were collected from three patients (2 males, 1 female) with clinically diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) according to DSM-5 criteria using semi-structured interviews (K-SADS adapted for adults) by a trained psychiatrist. Urine epithelial cell lines were established and expanded for subsequent reprogramming procedure. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were derived using integration-free CytoTune®-iPS 2.0 Sendai Reprogramming Kit, which includes Sendai virus particles of the four Yamanaka factors Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc.
Sochacki, J., Devalle, S., Reis, M., Mattos, P., & Rehen, S. (2016). Generation of urine iPS cell lines from patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using a non-integrative method. Stem Cell Research, 17(1), 102–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2016.05.015