BMD is a complex trait determined by genetic and lifestyle factors. To assess the genetic and environmental determinants of BMD in southern Chinese women, we studied a community-based cohort of 531 pre- and postmenopausal southern Chinese women and assessed the influence of 12 candidate gene loci and lifestyle risk factors on spine and hip BMD. The candidate genes studied include estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and beta (ESR2), calcium sensing receptor (CASR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), collagen type Iα1 (COLIA1), and LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5). Social, medical, reproductive history, dietary habits and lifestyle factors were determined using a structured questionnaire. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the COLIA1 and LRP5 gene in Chinese were determined by direct sequencing. Nucleotide (nt) -1363C/G and -1997 G/T of COLIA1, nt 266A/G, 2220C/T and 3989C/T of LRP5 gene were analyzed. Using stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, body weight was the strongest predictor for BMD in premenopausal women (n = 262), which accounted for 15.9% of the variance at the spine, 20% at femoral neck, 17.1% at trochanter, 24.3% at total hip and 10.9% at the Ward's triangle. Other significant predictors were ESR1 Ivs1-397T/C genotype (2.2% at the spine); LRP5 2220C/T genotype (1.3% at the spine, 1.6% at the trochanter); LRP5 266A/G genotype (1.1% at Ward's triangle); age at menarche (1.3% at trochanter) and age (2.0% at Ward's triangle). As for postmenopausal women (n = 269), body weight (∼25% at various sites) and age (∼16% at femoral neck, trochanter, total hip and Ward's triangle sites) were the strongest predictors of BMD. Other significant predictors were age at menarche (4.4% at spine, 0.7% at femoral neck, 1.4% at trochanter, and 1.4% at Ward's triangle); weight bearing physical activity (2.1% at trochanter and 1% at total hip); calcium intake (1.1% at femoral neck, 0.9% at trochanter, and 1.7% at total hip) ; height (0.7% at trochanter); and ESR2 1082A/G genotype (0.8% at trochanter). We conclude that BMD at various sites and at different time span of a woman is modified by different genetic and lifestyle factors, suggesting that BMD is highly dependent on gene-environmental interactions. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lau, H. H. L., Ng, M. Y. M., Ho, A. Y. Y., Luk, K. D. K., & Kung, A. W. C. (2005). Genetic and environmental determinants of bone mineral density in Chinese women. Bone, 36(4), 700–709. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2005.01.014