Understanding the genetic risk factors for stroke is an essential step to decipher the underlying mechanisms, facilitate the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and optimize the design of prevention strategies. A very small proportion of strokes are attributable to monogenic conditions, the vast majority being multifactorial, with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors of small effect size. Genome-wide association studies and large international consortia have been instrumental in finding genetic risk factors for stroke. While initial studies identified risk loci for specific stroke subtypes, more recent studies also revealed loci associated with all stroke and all ischemic stroke. Risk loci for ischemic stroke and its subtypes have been implicated in atrial fibrillation (PITX2 and ZFHX3), coronary artery disease (ABO, chr9p21, HDAC9, and ALDH2), blood pressure (ALDH2 and HDAC9), pericyte and smooth muscle cell development (FOXF2), coagulation (HABP2), carotid plaque formation (MMP12), and neuro-inflammation (TSPAN2). For hemorrhagic stroke, two loci (APOE and PMF1) have been identified.
Chauhan, G., & Debette, S. (2016, December 1). Genetic Risk Factors for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke. Current Cardiology Reports. Current Medicine Group LLC 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11886-016-0804-z