BACKGROUND The P1B-ATPase subfamily is an important group involved in transporting heavy metals and has been extensively studied in model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. Emerging evidence indicates that one homolog in Glycine max is also involved in cadmium (Cd) stress, but the gene family has not been fully investigated in soybean. RESULTS Here, we identified 20 heavy metal ATPase (HMA) family members in the soybean genome, presented as 10 paralogous pairs, which is significantly greater than the number in Arabidopsis or rice, and was likely caused by the latest whole genome duplication event in soybean. A phylogenetic analysis divided the 20 members into six groups, each having conserved or divergent gene structures and protein motif patterns. The integration of RNA-sequencing and qRT-PCR data from multiple tissues provided an overall expression pattern for the HMA family in soybean. Further comparisons of expression patterns and the single nucleotide polymorphism distribution between paralogous pairs suggested functional conservation and the divergence of HMA genes during soybean evolution. Finally, analyses of the HMAs expressed in response to Cd stress provided evidence on how plants manage Cd tolerance, at least in the two contrasting soybean genotypes examined. CONCLUSIONS The genome-wide identification, chromosomal distribution, gene structures, and evolutionary and expression analyses of the 20 HMA genes in soybean provide an overall insight into their potential involvement in Cd responses. These results will facilitate further research on the HMA gene family, and their conserved and divergent biological functions in soybean.
Fang, X., Wang, L., Deng, X., Wang, P., Ma, Q., Nian, H., … Yang, C. (2016). Genome-wide characterization of soybean P 1B -ATPases gene family provides functional implications in cadmium responses. BMC Genomics, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2730-2