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Geraniol (GO) potent antitumor and chemopreventive effects are attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, the potential efficacy of GO (250 mg/kg) in ameliorating metabolic syndrome (MetS) induced by fructose in drinking water was elucidated. Moreover, the effect of pioglitazone (5 and 10 mg/kg; PIO) and the possible interaction of the co-treatment of GO with PIO5 were studied in the MetS model. After 4 weeks of treatment, GO and/or PIO reduced the fasting blood glucose and the glycemic excursion in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. GO and PIO5/10 restrained visceral adiposity and partly the body weight gain. The decreased level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ transcriptional activity in the visceral adipose tissue of MetS rats was increased by single treatment regimens. Though GO did not affect MetS-induced hyperinsulinemia, PIO5/10 lowered it. Additionally, GO and PIO5/10 suppressed glycated hemoglobin and the receptor for advanced glycated end products (RAGE). These single regimens also ameliorated hyperuricemia, the disrupted lipid profile, and the elevated systolic blood pressure evoked by MetS. The rise in serum transaminases, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as hepatic lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) was lowered by the single treatments to different extents. Moreover, hepatic non-protein thiols, as well as serum NO and adiponectin were enhanced by single regimens. Similar effects were reached by the combination of GO with PIO5; however, a potentiative interaction was noted on fasting serum insulin level, while synergistic effects were reflected as improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced RAGE and triglycerides. Therefore, GO via the transcriptional activation of PPAR-γ reduces inflammation and free radical injury produced by MetS. Thereby, these effects provide novel mechanistic insights on GO management of MetS associated critical risk factors. Moreover, the co-administration of GO to PIO5 exalted the antidiabetic drug anti-MetS efficacy.




S.M., I., E.S., E.-D., & D.M., A. (2015). Geraniol, alone and in combination with pioglitazone, ameliorates fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats via the modulation of both inflammatory and oxidative stress status. PLoS ONE, 10(2). LK  -

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