Glioblastoma multiforme: A rare manifestation of extensive liver and bone metastases

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Abstract

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of primary brain tumours known collectively as gliomas. Gliomas are graded by their microscopic appearance. As a rule, their behaviour can be predicted from histology: Grade I (pilocytic astrocytomas) and Grade II (benign astrocytomas) tumours are of low grade and grow slowly over many years. Grade IV tumours (GBM) are the most aggressive and, unfortunately, also the most common in humans, growing rapidly, invading and altering brain function. These tumours arise from the supporting glial cells of the brain during childhood and in adulthood. These growths do not spread throughout the body like other forms of cancer, but cause symptoms by invading the brain. Untreated GBMs are rapidly lethal. Most patients with GBM die of their disease in less than a year and none have long term survival. Extracranial metastases from GBM are extremely rare, with a reported frequency of only 0.44% because of the absence of lymphatics in the brain and the difficulty of tumours to penetrate blood vessels. A case of glioblastoma multiforme with the rare features of extensive liver and bone metastases is presented in this paper. © 2008 Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal. All rights reserved.

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Robert, M. C., & Wastie, M. E. (2008). Glioblastoma multiforme: A rare manifestation of extensive liver and bone metastases. Biomedical Imaging and Intervention Journal, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.2349/biij.4.1.e3

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