We designed a method to simulate atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at several continuous observation sites around the globe using surface fluxes at a very high spatial resolution. The simulations presented in this study were performed using the Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric model (GELCA), comprising a Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled to a global atmospheric tracer transport model with prescribed global surface CO 2 flux maps at a 1 × 1 km resolution. The surface fluxes used in the simulations were prepared by assembling the individual components of terrestrial, oceanic and fossil fuel CO 2 fluxes. This experimental setup (i.e. a transport model running at a medium resolution, coupled to a high-resolution Lagrangian particle dispersion model together with global surface fluxes at a very high resolution), which was designed to represent high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, has not been reported at a global scale previously. Two sensitivity experiments were performed: (a) using the global transport model without coupling to the Lagrangian dispersion model, and (b) using the coupled model with a reduced resolution of surface fluxes, in order to evaluate the performance of Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and the role of high-resolution fluxes in simulating high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. A correlation analysis between observed and simulated atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at selected locations revealed that the inclusion of both Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and high-resolution fluxes improves the high-frequency simulations of the model. The results highlight the potential of a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model in simulating high-frequency atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at many locations worldwide. The model performs well in representing observations of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations at high spatial and temporal resolutions, especially for coastal sites and sites located close to sources of large anthropogenic emissions. While this study focused on simulations of CO 2 concentrations, the model could be used for other atmospheric compounds with known estimated emissions. © Author(s) 2012.
Ganshin, A., Oda, T., Saito, M., Maksyutov, S., Valsala, V., Andres, R. J., … Zhuravlev, R. (2012). A global coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model and 1 × 1 km CO 2 surface flux dataset for high-resolution atmospheric CO 2 transport simulations. Geoscientific Model Development, 5(1), 231–243. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-231-2012