The gold nanoparticle size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: In vivo

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Abstract

Nanoparticles (NPs) offer a great possibility for biomedical application, not only to deliver pharmaceutics, but also to be used as novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, there are no data available regarding to what extent the degree of the toxicity and the accumulation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are present in in vivo administration. This study aimed to address the GNP size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: in vivo. Methods: A total of 30 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats of the same age (12. weeks old) and weighing 220-240. g of King Saud University colony were used. Animals were randomly divided into groups, two GNP-treated rat groups and one control group (CG). The 50 μl of 10 and 50. nm GNPs was intraperitoneally administered in rats for exposure duration of 3. days. Then, several biochemical parameters such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea (UREA) and creatinine (CREA) were evaluated. Results: In this study, the AST values increased with the administration of 10 and 50. nm GNPs compared with the control. The AST values significantly increased with 10. nm GNPs compared with 50. nm GNPs and control. The GGT and ALT values decreased with the administration of 10 and 50. nm GNPs compared with the control. The GGT and ALT values significantly decreased with 50. nm GNPs compared with 10. nm GNPs and control. The ALP values significantly decreased with the administration of 10 and 50. nm GNPs compared with the control. The decrease in ALP values with 10. nm GNPs was higher than those compared with 50. nm GNPs. In this study, the levels of UREA and CREA values increased in a non significant manner after the administration of 10 and 50. nm GNPs compared with the control. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the increase in the enzymes AST and the decrease in ALP are smaller GNPs (10. nm) size-dependent for exposure duration of 3. days; while the decrease in the enzymes GGT and ALT are bigger GNPs (50. nm) size-dependent. The levels of UREA and CREA values indicated no significant changes with the administration of 10 and 50. nm GNPs for exposure duration of 3. days compared with the control. The administration of 10 and 50. nm GNPs for short exposure duration of 3. days induced only significant variations with some liver enzymes while kidney showed no significant variations. This study suggests that synthesis and metabolism of GNPs as well as the protection of the liver will be more important issues for medical applications of gold-based nanomaterials in future. © 2013.

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Abdelhalim, M. A. K., & Abdelmottaleb Moussa, S. A. (2013). The gold nanoparticle size and exposure duration effect on the liver and kidney function of rats: In vivo. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 20(2), 177–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.01.007

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