The grain size dependence of the bulk resistivity of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia at 1400°C was determined from the effect of a dc electric field Ea=18.1 V/cm on grain growth and the corresponding electric current during isothermal annealing tests. Employing the brick layer model, the present annealing test results were in accordance with extrapolations of the values obtained at lower temperature employing impedance spectroscopy and 4-point-probe dc. The combined values give that the magnitude of the grain boundary resistivity ρb=133 ohm-cm. The electric field across the grain boundary width was 28–43 times the applied field for the grain size and current ranges in the present annealing test.
Wang, J., Du, A., Yang, D., Raj, R., & Conrad, H. (2013). Grain Boundary Resistivity of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia at 1400°C. Journal of Ceramics, 2013, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/370603