The application of green fluorescent protein (GFP) to identify the portal(s) of entry of bacterial pathogens in animal hosts was studied using the fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda and blue gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus. An immersion challenge model was utilized to mimic natural infection conditions in fish. Gastrointestinal tract, gills and the body surface of fish were found to be the sites of entry of virulent E. tarda (PPD130/91) by histological and infection kinetics studies. On the other hand, avirulent E. tarda (PPD125/87) was mainly found in the gastrointestinal tract, and the bacterial population in tissue declined over a period of 7 days. © 2001 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
Ling, S. H. M., Wang, X. H., Lim, T. M., & Leung, K. Y. (2001). Green fluorescent protein-tagged Edwardsiella tarda reveals portal of entry in fish. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 194(2), 239–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(00)00498-5