Festivals in city parks attended by individuals and families are a universal feature of urban life. These venues often have the common attributes of vendors and other obstacles that restrict pedestrian movement through certain areas, as well as fixed number of exits. In this study, the authors build an agent-based model (ABM) that incorporates group cohesion forces into this type of pedestrian egress scenario. The scenario considered was an evacuation of 500 people through a single exit. This allowed an investigation into the use of two different simulated pedestrian's heading updating rules.
Collins, A., Elzie, T., Frydenlund, E., & Robinson, R. M. (2014). Do groups matter? an agent-based modeling approach to pedestrian egress. In Transportation Research Procedia (Vol. 2, pp. 430–435). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2014.09.051