Aims . Diabetes is a proinflammatory state, evidenced by increased pattern recognition receptors and the inflammasome (NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain (NLRP)) complex. Recent reports have elucidated the role of the gut microbiome in diabetes, but there is limited data on the gut microbiome in NLRP-KO mice and its effect on diabetes-induced inflammation. Methods . Gut microbiome composition and biomarkers of inflammation (IL-18, serum amyloid A) were assessed in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice on a NLRP3-knockout (KO) background versus wild-type diabetic mice. Results . SAA and IL-18 levels were significantly elevated in diabetic mice (STZ) compared to control (WT) mice, and there was a significant attenuation of inflammation in diabetic NLRP3-KO mice (NLRP3-KO STZ) compared to control mice ( p<0.005 ). Principal coordinate analysis clearly separated controls, STZ, and NLRP3-KO STZ mice. Among the different phyla, there was a significant increase in the Firmicutes : Bacteroidetes ratio in the diabetic group compared to controls. When compared to the WT STZ group, the NLRP3-KO STZ group showed a significant decrease in the Firmicutes : Bacteroidetes ratio. Together, these findings indicate that interaction of the intestinal microbes with the innate immune system is a crucial factor that could modify diabetes and complications.
Pahwa, R., Balderas, M., Jialal, I., Chen, X., Luna, R. A., & Devaraj, S. (2017). Gut Microbiome and Inflammation: A Study of Diabetic Inflammasome-Knockout Mice. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2017, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6519785