A combination of multiple injury types are typically involved in combat-related head injuries. Innovations in firearms, has led to new types of brain injuries from which we are able to learn much about how the brain responds to trauma. Traumatic brain injury is physical injury to brain tissue that temporarily or permanently impairs brain function. Initial treatment consists of ensuring a reliable airway and maintaining adequate ventilation, oxygenation, and blood pressure. Neurosurgical damage control includes early intracranial pressure control; cerebral blood flow preservation; and prevention of secondary cerebral injury from hypoxia, hypotension, and hyperthemia. Evacuation to the nearest neurosurgeon, avoiding diagnostic delays, and initiating cerebral resuscitation allow for the best chance for ultimate functional recovery.
Pushkarna, M. A., Bhatoe, B. H. S., & Sudambrekar, C. S. M. (2010). Head injuries. Medical Journal Armed Forces India, 66(4), 321–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-1237(10)80008-5