Background:Continuous systolic blood pressure (SBP) and interbeat intervals (IBI) recordings reveal sequences of consecutive beats in which SBP and heart rate change in opposite direction, representing negative feedback baroreflex mechanisms, as well as sequences in which SBP and heart rate change in the same direction (non-baroreflex), believed to represent feedforward control mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to assess the relationship between baroreflex and non-baroreflex sequences in end stage renal insufficiency.Methodology/Principal Findings:Continuous beat-to-beat SBP and IBI monitoring was performed in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD, n=72), in age-matched patients after renal transplantation (TX, n=41) and healthy (control) individuals (C, n=34). The proportion of baroreflex and nonbaroreflex episodes and the b coefficients (the regression line slope of SBP-IBI correlation) were determined using a newly developed 1 minute sliding window method, the classical sequence technique and the "Z" coefficient method. Analysis using the 1 minute sliding window showed an increased proportion of baroreflex episodes in controls and HD, and predominance of nonbaroreflex episodes in TX. An increased proportion of nonbaroreflex episodes in TX patients relative to HD was also revealed by the "Z" method. Baroreflex and nonbaroreflex b coefficients obtained by all methods were markedly decreased in HD. This alteration was reversed at least partly in TX. In HD, both baroreflex and nonbaroreflex b coefficients were inversely correlated to age and CRP levels; in TX, the nonbaroreflex b coefficient was influenced by the type of calcineurin inhibitor.Conclusion/Significance:Renal status affects the contribution of baroreflex and nonbaroreflex mechanisms and the strength of SBP-IBI relationship. The predominant contribution of nonbaroreflex mechanisms in TX may be suggestive of enhanced central sympathetic control. Our data may be relevant for understanding of the pathogenesis and selection of appropriate treatment of post-transplant hypertension. © 2013 Sapoznikov et al.
Sapoznikov, D., Dranitzki Elhalel, M., & Rubinger, D. (2013). Heart Rate Response to Blood Pressure Variations: Sympathetic Activation versus Baroreflex Response in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease. PLoS ONE, 8(10). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078338