Hemomediastinum is a rare pathological event. Multiple underlying causes and contributory factors can be identified, such as trauma, malignancy, iatrogenic, bleeding disorder or mediastinal organ hemorrhage. Also, a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm may be the source of a hemomediastinum. Hemoptysis is an important directive symptom, however occasionally, patients only present with thoracic pain or symptoms related to extrinsic compression of the airways or esophagus. Using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest, hemomediastinum can be adequately diagnosed, and the involved vascular structures can be revealed. In case of a (ruptured) bronchial artery aneurysm, transcatheter embolization provides a minimally invasive procedure and is treatment of first choice. In this case report, a 76-year-old female is presented with spontaneous rupture of a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm resulting in hemomediastinum causing thoracic pain. Superselective embolization of the left bronchial artery was successfully performed. © 2014.
Vosse, B. A. H., van Belle, A. F., de Vries, G. J., & Das, M. (2014). Hemomediastinum due to spontaneous rupture of a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm - A rare cause of thoracic pain. Respiratory Medicine Case Reports, 12, 27–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rmcr.2013.12.012