The combination of pixel value differencing (PVD) and least significant bit (LSB) substitution gives higher capacity and lesser distortion. However, there are three issues to be taken into account: (i) fall off boundary problem (FOBP), (ii) pixel difference histogram (PDH) analysis, and (iii) RS analysis. This paper proposes a steganography technique in two variants using combination of modified LSB substitution and PVD by taking care of these three issues. The first variant operates on 2 × 3 pixel blocks and the second technique operates on 3 × 3 pixel blocks. In one of the pixels of a block, embedding is performed using modified LSB substitution. Based on the new value of this pixel, difference values with other neighboring pixels are calculated. Using these differences, PVD approach is applied. The edges in multiple directions are exploited, so PDH analysis cannot detect this steganography. The LSB substitution is performed in only one pixel of the block, so RS analysis also cannot detect this steganography. To address the FOBP, suitable equations are used during embedding procedure. The experimental results such as bit rate and distortion measure are satisfactory.
Swain, G. (2018). High Capacity Image Steganography Using Modified LSB Substitution and PVD against Pixel Difference Histogram Analysis. Security and Communication Networks, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1505896