Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) play a central role in educating maternal leukocytes, endometrial stromal and endothelial cells to generate a receptive decidual microenvironment tailored to accept the semi-allogeneic fetus. HLA-G, a non-classical HLA class I molecule endowed with immune-regulatory functions, is primarily expressed on EVTs lining the placenta and on the naturally occurring tolerogenic dendritic cells, named DC-10, which are enriched in the human first trimester decidua. Decidual DC-10 are involved in HLA-G-mediated tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. EVTs not only establish a tolerogenic microenvironment through the interaction with maternal innate and adaptive cells but also orchestrate placenta vascular and tissue remodeling, leading to a successful pregnancy. Here, we discuss the potential implications of the HLA-G-mediated cross-talk among the cells present at the maternal-fetal interface, and its role in maintaining a positive relationship between the mother and the fetus.
Gregori, S., Amodio, G., Quattrone, F., & Panina-Bordignon, P. (2015). HLA-G orchestrates the early interaction of human trophoblasts with the maternal niche. Frontiers in Immunology, 6(MAR). https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00128