? 2016 Lui et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Background: We aimed to study the pathogenic roles of High-Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) / Receptor-for-Advanced-Glycation-End-products (RAGE) signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Methods: A prospective study was conducted among non-HIV adults newly-diagnosed with active PTB at two acute-care hospitals (n = 80); age-and-sex matched asymptomatic individuals (tested for latent TB) were used for comparison (n = 45). Plasma concentrations of 8 cytokines/chemokines, HMGB1, soluble-RAGE, and transmembrane-RAGE expressed on monocytes/dendritic cells, were measured. Gene expression (mRNA) of HMGB1, RAGE, and inflammasome-NALP3 was quantified. Patients' PBMCs were stimulated with recombinant-HMGB1 and MTB-antigen (lipoarabinomannan) for cytokine induction ex vivo. Results: In active PTB, plasma IL-8/CXCL8 [median(IQR), 6.0(3.6-15.1) vs 3.6(3.6-3.6) pg/ml, P<0.001] and IL-6 were elevated, which significantly correlated with mycobacterial load, extent of lung consolidation (rs +0.509, P<0.001), severity-score (rs +0.317, P = 0.004), and fever and hospitalization durations (rs +0.407, P<0.001). IL-18 and sTNFR1 also increased. Plasma IL-8/CXCL8 (adjusted OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.02-1.23 per unit increase, P = 0.021) and HMGB1 (adjusted OR 1.42 per unit increase, 95%CI 1.08-1.87, P = 0.012) concentrations were independent predictors for respiratory failure, as well as for ICU admission/death. Gene expression of HMGB1, RAGE, and inflammasome-NALP3 were upregulated (1.2-2.8 fold). Transmembrane-RAGE was increased, whereas the decoy soluble-RAGE was significantly depleted. RAGE and HMGB1 gene expressions positively correlated with cytokine levels (IL-8/CXCL8, IL-6, sTNFR1) and clinico-/radiographical severity (e.g. extent of consolidation rs +0.240, P = 0.034). Ex vivo, recombinant-HMGB1 potentiated cytokine release (e.g. TNF-?) when combined with lipoarabinomannan. Conclusion: In patients with active PTB, HMGB1/RAGE signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokines may play important roles in pathogenesis and disease manifestations. Our clinico-immunological data can provide basis for the development of new strategies for disease monitoring, management and control.
Lui, G., Wong, C. K., Ip, M., Chu, Y. J., Yung, I. M. H., Cheung, C. S. K., … Lee, N. (2016). HMGB1/RAGE signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in non-HIV adults with active pulmonary tuberculosis. PLoS ONE, 11(7). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159132