Human cytomegalovirus infection upregulates the mitochondrial transcription and translation machineries

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Abstract

Infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) profoundly affects cellular metabolism. Like in tumor cells, HCMV infection increases glycolysis, and glucose carbon is shifted from the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle to the biosynthesis of fatty acids. However, unlike in many tumor cells, where aerobic glycolysis is accompanied by suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, HCMV induces mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Here, we affinity purified mitochondria and used quantitative mass spectrometry to determine how the mitochondrial proteome changes upon HCMV infection. We found that the mitochondrial transcription and translation systems are induced early during the viral replication cycle. Specifically, proteins involved in biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome were highly upregulated by HCMV infection. Inhibition of mitochondrial translation with chloramphenicol or knockdown of HCMV-induced ribosome biogenesis factor MRM3 abolished the HCMV-mediated increase in mitochondrially encoded proteins and significantly impaired viral growth under bioenergetically restricting conditions. Our findings demonstrate how HCMV manipulates mitochondrial biogenesis to support its replication. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a betaherpesvirus, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during congenital infection and among immunosuppressed individuals. HCMV infection significantly changes cellular metabolism. Akin to tumor cells, in HCMV-infected cells, glycolysis is increased and glucose carbon is shifted from the tricarboxylic acid cycle to fatty acid biosynthesis. However, unlike in tumor cells, HCMV induces mitochondrial biogenesis even under aerobic glycolysis. Here, we have affinity purified mitochondria and used quantitative mass spectrometry to determine how the mitochondrial proteome changes upon HCMV infection. We find that the mitochondrial transcription and translation systems are induced early during the viral replication cycle. Specifically, proteins involved in biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome were highly upregulated by HCMV infection. Inhibition of mitochondrial translation with chloramphenicol or knockdown of HCMV-induced ribosome biogenesis factor MRM3 abolished the HCMV-mediated increase in mitochondrially encoded proteins and significantly impaired viral growth. Our findings demonstrate how HCMV manipulates mitochondrial biogenesis to support its replication.

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Karniely, S., Weekes, M. P., Antrobus, R., Rorbach, J., Van Haute, L., Umrania, Y., … Sinclair, J. H. (2016). Human cytomegalovirus infection upregulates the mitochondrial transcription and translation machineries. MBio, 7(2). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00029-16

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